2023.05.29 04:46 Still_Needleworker11 Script list as of May 28th
2023.05.29 04:41 ansi09 SquadsLabs - What Is SVM, The Solana Virtual Machine
Source: https://twitter.com/SimkinStepan/status/1662898945482448896submitted by ansi09 to solana [link] [comments]
Throwback to our SVM article with a graphic that triggered quite a few friends outside of Solana.https://preview.redd.it/0oihy9u05q2b1.png?width=680&format=png&auto=webp&s=17d6de2317c5bf21c74d783da242c95bcf5cc1c9
What Is SVM - The Solana Virtual MachineSolana has gained significant attention as a next-generation, highly scalable blockchain, largely due to its exceptional performance capabilities that can handle thousands of transactions per second with almost no fees. One of the key elements of Solana's advanced technology is its execution environment, SVM, which includes the Sealevel parallelization engine.
This article covers the Solana Virtual Machine (SVM) and how this innovative infrastructure enables the Solana blockchain to deliver enhanced performances compared to traditional EVM blockchains like Ethereum. While EVM has for a long time been the dominant virtual machine standard in crypto, we'll also explore how SVM is gradually expanding through rollup solutions such as Nitro and Eclipse.
The Solana Virtual Machine (SVM) and Sealevel ExplainedThe Solana Virtual Machine, SVM in short, is the execution environment that processes transactions and smart contracts/programs on the Solana network. In order to better comprehend SVM, we first need to understand how a virtual machine works within a crypto network.
In the context of blockchains, a virtual machine (VM) is a piece of software that runs programs, more often referred to as a runtime environment to execute smart contracts for a crypto network. When a transaction is submitted, the virtual machine of the network is responsible for processing it and managing the state of the blockchain (the current status of the entire network) impacted by the execution of this transaction. The specific rules for changing the state of the network are defined by the VM.
When processing a transaction, the VM converts the smart contract code into a format that can be carried out by the validators' hardware. On Solana, the main languages for writing smart contract are Rust, C, and C++, which are compiled into BPF bytecode by the Solana Virtual Machine (SVM), enabling transactions to be executed efficiently by the nodes of the network (validators).
The nodes of the Solana network, known as validators, each run their own isolated environment of the Solana Virtual Machine (SVM) to maintain consensus across the blockchain. When a smart contract is deployed (modifying the network's state), it communicates the required state changes to the runtime. The Solana runtime then forwards these state changes to the SVM instances operating within each validator's system, where all validator nodes receive a copy and translate it, updating the blockchain. This distribution of SVM instances across validators results in a decentralized network, reducing the risk of DDoS attacks or shutdowns. Moreover, this isolation ensures that potential bugs or vulnerabilities in a smart contract do not compromise the security or stability of the entire Solana network.
In summary, these SVM instances can be viewed as “mini-computers” that execute the necessary operations to update the state of the Solana network based on the provided instructions by transactions. While many blockchains today rely on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), Solana has developed its own VM, featuring unique capabilities that deliver improved performance.
The key component of SVM is Sealevel. This engine enables “horizontal” scaling within the Solana execution environment by allowing multiple smart contracts to run simultaneously without impacting each other's performance, a concept known as parallel processing. This is possible due to Solana smart contracts describing which data (state) will be read or written while executing in the runtime. This lets transactions without conflicts to run at the same time, as well as those just reading the same information. Sealevel makes it thus possible for the SVM to handle tens of thousands of transactions simultaneously, as opposed to processing them one by one like the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).
SVM vs EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine)While both EVM and SVM perform similar functions, the Solana VM is much more efficient and faster. On EVM, when a smart contract transfers a dollar from a user’s balance, this transaction is stored within the specific contract's storage. This design creates potential issues if the Ethereum Virtual Machine attempts to process multiple transactions in parallel. For example, two different smart contracts might simultaneously attempt to spend the user’s balance, or another contract might read this same user’s balance while it is in the process of being updated, leading to inconsistencies and conflicts.
In contrast, the Solana account model separates data, such as user’s balance, for better organization and efficiency. Transactions on Solana also require explicit specification of the data they will read and modify before execution in the SVM. As said earlier, this allows programs that do not interact with the same data to run concurrently, which helps to alleviate congestion and reduce high fees. For example, the Solana VM can process Toly sending one dollar to Raj simultaneously with Armani sending three dollars to Chase.
The reason EVM struggles with processing multiple transactions simultaneously is partly due to it being a "single-threaded" runtime environment, which can only process one contract at a time. Due to this, the EVM design does not take advantage of multi-core hardware, which means only one core of the validator’s hardware is actively processing transactions, while the other cores remain underutilized. This often results in network congestion and higher transaction fees. However, it is important to note that other factors than its multi-threaded runtime also contribute to EVM limitations, such as the desire to maintain low hardware requirements for running nodes.
On the other hand, Sealevel optimizes the performance of the Solana runtime by enabling efficient use of the available hardware resources. SVM is a multi-threaded runtime environment, designed to process multiple transactions in parallel by using all the cores available of the validator machine. This makes Solana able to scale more effectively as the hardware of its validators improves over time. The Solana Virtual Machine can also manage transaction fees in a better way thanks to its architecture. This has led to the development of localized fee markets, which enable fees to be assigned per smart contract. In contrast, EVM chains rely on global fee markets, meaning that an NFT mint can affect a swap or DeFi transaction, even though the transactions are unrelated.
For all these reasons, SVM's parallel processing capabilities allow Solana to achieve significantly higher TPS, resulting in faster transaction speeds, and with almost invisible fees compared to the EVM architecture. This positions SVM as a next-generation blockchain environment, far more efficient and performant. As more developers recognize this, we are starting to see greater adoption of the SVM as an execution environment for smart contracts, with an emerging ecosystem of SVM rollups taking shape.
The Emerging Ecosystem of SVM RollupsA rollup is a type of blockchain scaling solution that processes transactions outside of a Layer 1 blockchain (e.g., Solana) and later posts the data to a Layer 1 retroactively. Rollups aim to reduce network congestion and transaction fees by bundling multiple transactions together into a single "proof" that is then submitted to the main chain. The greatest advantage of building a rollup is the ability to fully customize the chain. This customization allows for various use cases, such as tailored orderbooks, encrypted mempools for minimizing MEV (Miner Extractable Value), or permissioned applications designed to meet specific requirements.
A virtual machine can also be used to simplify the deployment process for developers on other chains that use the same VM. This network effect has greatly benefited Ethereum and its VM, since it was the first runtime environment for crypto smart contracts. As a result, EVM has been the primary execution environment used for building rollup blockchains. Among the two types of rollups, Optimistic and Zk, Optimistic rollups such as Arbitrum are the most widespread. Recently, SVM has seen numerous advancements aimed at bringing the rollup technology to Solana developers. The main projects building rollups for Solana are Nitro and Eclipse.
Nitro is an Optimistic rollup solution, similar to Arbitrum or Optimism, that utilizes the Solana Virtual Machine (SVM) to enable Solana developers to port their dApps to various ecosystems. Nitro plans to launch on Sei first, a sector-specific trading chain built on Cosmos, before expanding to other chains. It uses SVM to execute transactions with parallelization, which means users will be able to perform as they would on Solana, while Nitro using Sei for settlement and consensus. Furthermore, with Sei being part of the Cosmos ecosystem, Nitro’s projects and its users will be able to benefit from the IBC interoperability technology, accessing Cosmos assets and liquidity.
Another SVM rollup solution in development is Eclipse, which aims to facilitate the deployment of customizable rollups. Eclipse's optimistic rollups enable projects to create their own distinct app chains while benefiting from the security of established networks (e.g., Cosmos app-chains, Polygon, Ethereum) and leveraging the Solana Virtual Machine (SVM). SVM serves as the execution environment, with Eclipse handling settlement, and consensus and data availability (DA) managed by the developer's chosen Layer 1 network. Currently, Eclipse offers Optimistic rollup solutions but is working on launching zk-rollups as well.
Eclipse has already announced two rollup solutions built on top of SVM:
SVM Is A Next-Generation Blockchain Environment for DevelopersDespite being only three years old, Solana has already demonstrated impressive performance, and the development of scaling solutions like Nitro and Eclipse on top of its VM highlights the success of its innovative execution architecture. Solana has been able to learn from the challenges faced by older networks like Bitcoin and Ethereum. Bitcoin wasn't designed for smart contracts, which led to the emergence of Ethereum. Similarly, Ethereum wasn't prepared for mass adoption and high-speed transactions, paving the way for Solana and parallel processing. Moreover, access to the SVM environment is becoming easier for developers, with Neon Labs bringing in Solidity compatibility with the Solana runtime, as well as the upcoming Runtime v2 upgrade, which should enable developers to build SVM-compatible dApps using a plethora of programming languages such as Move.
It is evident that the Solana VM offers a more advanced environment for building next-generation applications. The parallel processing of transactions enables higher throughput, akin to what is possible in traditional finance, enabling developers to build any kind of product without worrying about speed limits or fees. Building on a chain with TPS as high as 15 will not bring crypto to mass adoption. Thanks to SVM and Sealevel, Solana can (already) handle thousands of transactions without congestion nor noticeable gas fees, making it a perfect environment for building those new applications. And as the hardware of validators improves, Solana’s Sealevel runtime will be able to process even more transactions in parallel, widening the gap between SVM and EVM while onboarding more users.
Squads will support the expansion of the Solana Virtual Machine (SVM) and bring multi-signature (multisig) functionality to the whole SVM ecosystem, enabling anyone to use the best blockchain execution environment with the best self-custody experience to manage on-chain assets.
Acknowledgments: Thanks to Jarry Xiao (Ellipsis) and Neal Somani (Eclipse) for feedback on earlier drafts of this post.
2023.05.29 04:38 blankxlate Sweet Vengeance 6
2023.05.29 04:31 MasterDefibrillator Chomsky on Brazil (various Excerpts).
Or look at Brazil: potentially an extremely rich country with tremendous resources, except it had the curse of being part of the Western system of subordination. So in northeast Brazil, for example, which is a rather fertile area with plenty of rich land, just it’s all owned by plantations, Brazilian medical researchers now identify the population as a new species with about 40 percent the brain size of human beings, a result of generations of profound malnutrition and neglect—and this may be un-remediable except after generations, because of the lingering effects of malnutrition on one’s offspring.54 Alright, that’s a good example of the legacy of our commitments, and the same kind of pattern runs throughout the former Western colonies....
Whatever you think of the Soviet economic system, did it work or did it fail? Well, in a culture with deeply totalitarian strains, like ours, we always ask an idiotic question about that: we ask, how does Russia compare economically with Western Europe, or with the United States? And the answer is, it looks pretty bad. But an eight-year-old would know the problem with that question: these economies haven’t been alike for six hundred years—you’d have to go back to the pre-Columbian period before East and West Europe were anything more or less alike economically.......
Now, suppose we asked a rational question, instead of asking an insane question like “how did the Soviet Union compare with Western Europe?” If you want to evaluate alternative modes of economic development—whether you like them or not—what you ought to ask is, how did societies that were like the Soviet Union in 1910 compare with it in 1990? Well, history doesn’t offer precise analogs, but there are good choices. So we could compare Russia and Brazil, say, or Bulgaria and Guatemala—those are reasonable comparisons. Brazil, for example, ought to be a super-rich country: it has unbelievable natural resources, it has no enemies, it hasn’t been practically destroyed three times by invasions in this century [i.e. the Soviet Union suffered massive losses in both World Wars and the 1918 Western intervention in its Civil War]. In fact, it’s a lot better equipped to develop than the Soviet Union ever was. Okay, just compare Brazil and Russia—that’s a sane comparison.
Well, there’s a good reason why nobody undertakes it, and we only make idiotic comparisons—because if you compare Brazil and Russia, or Guatemala and Hungary, you get the wrong answer. Brazil, for maybe 5 or 10 percent of its population, is indeed like Western Europe—and for around 80 percent of its population, it’s kind of like Central Africa. In fact, for probably 80 percent of the Brazilian population, Soviet Russia would have looked like heaven. If a Guatemalan peasant suddenly landed in Bulgaria, he’d probably think he’d gone to paradise or something. So therefore we don’t make those comparisons, we only make crazy comparisons, which anybody who thinks for a second would see are preposterous. And everybody here does make them: all the academics make them, all the development economists make them, the newspaper commentators make them. But just think for a second: if you want to know how successful the Soviet economic system was, compare Russia in 1990 with someplace that was like it in 1910. Is that such a brilliant insight?
In fact, it’s gotten to the point where some major corporations don’t even worry about strikes anymore, they see them as an opportunity to destroy unions. For instance, the Caterpillar corporation recently broke an eighteen-month strike in Decatur, Illinois [from June 1994 to December 1995], and part of the way they did it was by developing excess production capacity in foreign countries. See, major corporations have a ton of capital now, and one of the things they’ve been able to do with it is to build up extra overseas production capacity. So Caterpillar has been building plants in Brazil—where they get far cheaper labor than in the United States—and then they can use that production capability to fill their international orders in the event of a strike in the U.S. So they didn’t really mind the strike in Decatur, because it gave them an opportunity to finally break the union through this international strategy.72 That’s something that’s relatively new, and given this increasing centralization of power in the international economy, and the ability of big transnational corporations to play one national workforce against another to drive down work standards everywhere, there just has to be international solidarity today if there’s going to be any hope—and that means real international solidarity....
Well, okay, these are complicated matters, and you don’t just want to sloganize about them—but in my opinion, all of these international agreements are part of a general attack on democracy and free markets that we’re seeing in the contemporary period, as banks, investment firms, and transnational corporations develop new methods to extend their power free from public scrutiny. And in that context, it’s not very surprising that they’re all being rammed through as quickly and secretly as they are. And whatever you happen to think about the specific treaties that have now been put into place, there is just no doubt that their consequences for most of the people in the world are going to be vast.Chapter 5: The Organ Trade:
In fact, these treaties are just one more step in the process that’s been accelerating in recent years of differentiating the two main class interests of the world still further—far more so than before—so that the Third World wealth-distribution model is being extended everywhere. And while the proportions of wealth in a rich country like the United States will always differ significantly from the proportions in a deeply impoverished country like Brazil, for example (deeply impoverished thanks to the fact that it’s been under the Western heel for centuries), you can certainly see the effects under way in recent years. I mean, in the United States things probably aren’t going to get to the point where 80 percent of the population is living like Central Africa and 10 percent is fabulously wealthy. Maybe it’ll be 50 percent and 30 percent or something like that, with the rest somewhere in between—because more people are always going to be needed in the Western societies for things like scientific research and skilled labor, providing propaganda services, being managers, things like that. But the changes no doubt are happening, and they will be rapidly accelerated as these accords are implemented.
WOMAN: You mentioned “social cleansing” and people in the Third World selling their body parts for money. I don’t know if you saw the recent Barbara Walters program . . .
The answer is, “No by definition.”
WOMAN: Well, I have to admit I watched it. She had a segment on some American women who were attacked by villagers in Guatemala and put in jail for allegedly stealing babies for the organ trade. The gist of the story was that the Guatemalan people are totally out of their minds for supposing that babies are being taken out of the country and used for black market sale of organs. 22 What I’d like to know is, do you know of any evidence that this black market trade in children’s organs does in fact exist, and do you think the U.S. might be playing a role in it?
Well, look: suppose you started a rumor in Boston that children from the Boston suburbs are being kidnapped by Guatemalans and taken to Guatemala so their bodies could be used for organ transplants. How far off the ground do you think that rumor would get?
WOMAN: Not far.
Okay, but in Guatemalan peasant societies it does get off the ground. Do they have different genes than we do?
Alright, so there’s got to be some reason why the story spreads there and it wouldn’t spread here. And the reason is very clear. Though the specific stories are doubtless false in this case, there’s a background which is true—that’s why nobody would believe it here, and they do believe it there: because they know about other things that go on.
For one thing, in Latin America there is plenty of kidnapping of children. Now, what the children are used for, you can argue. Some of them are kidnapped for adoption, some of them are used for prostitution—and that goes on throughout the U.S. domains. I mean, you take a look at the U.S. domains—Thailand, Brazil, practically everywhere you go—there are young children being kidnapped for sex-slavery, or just plain slavery.23 So kidnapping of children unquestionably takes place. And there is strong evidence—I don’t think anybody doubts it very much—that people in these regions are killed for organ transplants.24 Now, whether it’s children or not, I don’t know. But if you take a look at the recent Amnesty International report on Colombia, for example, they say almost casually—just because it’s so routine—that in Colombia they carry out what’s called “social cleansing”: the army and the paramilitary forces go through the cities and pick up “undesirables,” like homeless people, or homosexuals, or prostitutes, or drug addicts, anybody they don’t like, and they just take them and murder them, then chop them up and mutilate their bodies for organ transplants. That’s called “social cleansing,” and everybody thinks it’s a great idea. 25 And again, this goes on throughout the U.S. domains.
In fact, it’s even beginning now in Eastern Europe as they’re being turned back into another sector of the Third World—people are starting to sell organs to survive, like you sell a cornea or a kidney or something.26
WOMAN: Your own?
Yeah, your own. You just sell it because you’re totally desperate—so you sell your eyes, or your kidney, something that can be taken out without killing you. That goes on, and it’s been going on for a long time. Well, you know, that’s a background, and against that background these stories, which have been rampant, are believable—and they are in fact believed. And it’s not just by peasants in the highlands: the chief official in the Salvadoran government in charge of children [Victoria de Aviles], the “Procurator for the Defense of Children,” she’s called, recently stated that children in El Salvador are being kidnapped for adoption, crime, and organ transplants. Well, I don’t know if that’s true or not, but it’s not an authority you just dismiss. In Brazil too there’s been a lot of testimony about these things from very respectable sources: church sources, medical investigators, legal sources, and others.27
Now, it’s interesting: I didn’t see the Barbara Walters program you mentioned, but I’ve read the State Department reports on which she probably based her stuff—and they’re very selective in their coverage. They say, “Oh, it’s all nonsense and lies, and it was all started by the Communists,” and they trace it back to sort of Communist sources—which doubtless picked it up, but they are not the sources. The State Department carefully excluded all the other sources, like the church sources, the government sources, the mainstream legal investigators, the human rights groups—they didn’t mention them, they just said, “Yeah, the stories were picked up by the Russian propaganda apparatus back in the bad old days.” But that’s not where it comes from. Like I say, the Russians couldn’t start these stories in the Boston suburbs—and there’s a reason why they couldn’t start them in the Boston suburbs and somebody could start them in Guatemala. And the reason is, there’s a background in Guatemala against which these things are not implausible—which is not to say these women are being correctly charged; undoubtedly they’re not, these women are just women who happened to be in Guatemala. But the point is, that background makes it easy for people there to be frightened, and in that sort of context it’s quite understandable how these attacks can have happened.
2023.05.29 04:25 NeptuneAgency From Rock 'n' Roll to AI: Exploring Seven Decades of Unprecedented Transformation
2023.05.29 04:22 awayteamriker [WTS] Garage Sale Parts Bin Clean Out - ALG, Geissele, VLTOR, Uppers, Mags, and more
|Upper receiver group with Geissele 11.5 inch 5.56mm 1:7 CHF barrel (parkerized and chrome-lined, not black oxide), Geissele pinned gas block, Geissele 9.5 inch MK14 rail, and VLTOR MUR upper. Parts were all non-blem but there is some light wear and scratches from a little bit of use. Not more than 400 rounds through it. Includes Magpul MBUS sights but no BCG or charging handle. Looking for $425 on this one. More photos here: https://imgur.com/a/LyAqfLo|
|Upper receiver group with KAK 8 inch 300 Blackout 1:7 stainless steel barrel, Geissele pinned stainless steel gas block, ALG 10 inch EMR V3X rail, KAK flash can, and a Cerro forged upper. Parts were all non-blem but there is some light wear and scratches from a little bit of use. Not more than 300 rounds through it. Includes Magpul MBUS sights but no BCG or charging handle. Only ever shot subsonic and no problems cycling unsupressed. Looking for $375 on this one. More photos here: https://imgur.com/a/2R4hkEY|
|Bushnell Banner 2 3-9x40 1 inch tube scope. Supposedly this is a long eye relief scope but I had no problem using it in the typical position on a Ruger American. Only one range trip with this one to sight it in, could probably pass as new. Includes box, bikini cover and chinesium scope rings. How about $45 on this one. More photos here: https://imgur.com/a/sFXP8ib|
|Lucid HD7 red dot sight. These were pretty popular about 10 years or so ago before Holosun or Primary Arms were really on the scene this was considered the good Chinese made budget red dot to get. Has a built in mount, selectable reticles, manual and automatic brightness, looks kinda like an ACOG from a distance if you squint. It has spent most of its life on a .22 but it has been dropped and scratched up a little but overall in pretty good shape. The rear lens does have some sort of small spot on it but you only see it if you are focusing on it. How about $45 on this one. More photos here: https://imgur.com/a/mZt7HU7|
|9mm AR components being sold together as a kit. KAK mag well conversion block for Colt SMG mags with last round bolt hold open, Ballistic Advantage 9mm barrel with FSB (same length as a 10.5 inch 5.56), CMMG blow back BCG from before they switched to the radial delay, KAK extra heavy extended buffer. Parts are all a little salty, probably around 600 rounds of 124 and 147 FMJ through it and never any problems feeding. How about $175 for the components.|
|ASC 32 round 9mm SMG magazine. A little salty and dirty but function fine. 7 available, looking for $12 each.|
|ASC 20 round 9mm SMG magazine. A little salty and dirty but function fine. 3 available, looking for $8 each.|
|No name milspec buffer tube with castle nut, pretty sure this came with one of my pistol braces but can't be sure. Salty. How about $8 here too.|
|Magpul grip, (SL maybe?), too skinny for my hands. Includes Magpul screw and a star washer, very lightly used. $8 again.|
|ETS Glock 43 6 round 9mm magazine. Used only once or twice. $8|
|Magpul Scorpion magazine. Never used. I don't even have a scorpion. $8|
2023.05.29 04:18 Rare_Room_1528 Rewards Calendar for all modes
|submitted by Rare_Room_1528 to NHLHUT [link] [comments]|
2023.05.29 04:17 falcon2685 [WTS] SILVER Awesomeness
2023.05.29 04:07 arotenberg An analysis of cards that you might have forgotten are still in Standard, for after the ban announcement
2023.05.29 04:03 nahimavegan (Selling) Huge list of 1100+ movies! Lots of New and Rare titles!
2023.05.29 04:00 bridger713 RECRUITING, TRAINING, & LIFE IN THE FORCES THREAD - Ask here about the Recruitment Process, Basic & Occupational Training, and other questions relating directly or indirectly to serving in the Canadian Armed Forces.
2023.05.29 03:55 likesun In The Shadows
2023.05.29 03:53 icygale Startup equity question
2023.05.29 03:49 The_dots_eat_packman [Railroad Preservation] People have been debating what color a defunct railroad painted its steam locomotives longer than I’ve been alive.
2023.05.29 03:48 Least-Average-8513 My friend (32m) has lived with me (24f) for 2 years and I feel like the relationship is becoming toxic.
2023.05.29 03:42 Massive_Level_7127 What Are Bluetooth Bone Conduction Headsets and Can They Damage Your Hearing?
This is an era of frequent disasters, but also an era of heroes. At the scene of emergencies such as earthquakes, fires, and floods, there are always respectable firefighters who are desperate to save lives. Various equipment enters the rescue scene with firefighters, among which communication equipment is the most important. The harsh environment of the rescue site is a huge challenge for firefighters to communicate.submitted by Massive_Level_7127 to HeyNewGadget [link] [comments]
To solve this problem, people have equipped firefighters with a new communication artifact — tactical Bluetooth bone conduction headsets to help firefighters listen to clear instructions in noisy and harsh environments, so that they can accurately and quickly reply to information. Tactical Bluetooth bone conduction headsets relatively bulky. Based on the same principle of sound transmission, engineers have developed this type of headphones for ordinary users. In the past two years, they have become a phenomenon-level earphone product and are very popular among young people.
What are Bluetooth bone conduction headsets?Bone conduction earphones are earphones that “attach the sounding unit to the temple and other parts, convert the sound into mechanical vibration by the sounding unit, cause the bone to vibrate through the mechanical vibration, and conduct the sound to the auditory nerve from the bone”. Simply put, Bluetooth bone conduction headsets are headphones that use human bones as the sound transmission medium.
Bluetooth bone conduction headsets are a new application of mature technology. Its technology is widely used in the military, fire protection, hearing aids, and other fields. Daily listening to music is a newly expanded application field of bone conduction earphones. However, it is foreseeable that the field of listening to music will make Bluetooth bone conduction headsets more popular.
However, some people are worried that bone conduction headsets will damage hearing
Can Bluetooth bone conduction headsets damage hearing?Bluetooth bone conduction headsets are usually less harmful to the ears, but if used for a long time and at excessive volume, hearing damage can occur.
Since Bluetooth bone conduction headsets do not need to be plugged into the ear canal when worn, they will not cause damage to the ear due to wearing them. They transmit sound without passing through the ear canal and eardrum, which avoids eardrum damage caused by vibrating the eardrum.
When the Bluetooth bone conduction headsets are used, the ear canal is kept open, which is important for the hygiene of the ear. And they will not cause the ear canal to be wet and stuffy to breed bacteria due to sweat depositing caused by long-term exercise, thereby avoiding the damage to the ear by diseases such as otitis media.
In addition to small damage to the ear canal and eardrum, Bluetooth bone conduction headsets also have very little damage to the inner ear. Due to the relatively gentle and stable vibrating waves of the headphones, they have little damage to the cochlea. Moreover, the electromagnetic waves of them are very small, and their impact on the auditory nerve and brain nerve is also very small.
Therefore, Bluetooth bone conduction headsets will not damage hearing, they protect hearing completely, from the ear canal, eardrum, cochlea to auditory nerves, etc..They are the healthiest kind of headphones.
For hearing protection, when using Bluetooth bone conduction headsets, remember not to use high volumes for a long time, which can cause damage to hearing. In fact, no matter what kind of headphones you wear, long-term use at high volume will definitely cause damage to hearing. It is generally recommended that after using headphones for 2–3 hours, you should rest for 10–15 minutes.
In addition to very little damage to the ears, Bluetooth bone conduction headsets are also very safe. They allow you to listen to music when you can also hear the surrounding environment sounds, which avoids outdoor sports encounters danger. And they are also very comfortable to wear. These advantages are determined by their working methods
How does Bluetooth bone conduction headsets work?Bluetooth bone conduction headsets are a new application of proven technology, but bone conduction has a long history, with its first applications dating back to the 18th century.
It is rumored that Beethoven, who was deaf, rubbed one end of a long rod into the piano. He put the other end in his mouth and kept it as close to the ear as possible. When playing, the long rod transmitted the sound to the jawbone and the cochlea of the inner ear, so that Beethoven could hear the sound of the piano. This was so important for Beethoven cause he regained his sense of hearing again and he can continue his music composition. This may be the earliest documented application of bone conduction technology.
When the bone conduction headphone works, it converts the sound signal into mechanical vibration by the sound unit and drives the skull to vibrate at the same frequency, allowing the sound to reach the cochlea of the middle ear and inner ear. Finally, we can hear the sound. In the process of sound transmission, they directly bypass the ear canal and eardrum to reach the inner ear, taking a shortcut. Just because it takes a shortcut, it reduces the damage to the ear canal and eardrum, making it the healthiest headphone.
Most of us have been exposed to bone conduction in our daily life. Put your ears close to the ground, and you can hear the footsteps of “tap, tap, tap” through vibration; cover your ears, and you can still hear yourself mumbling, which is a natural phenomenon of bone conduction.
Bone conduction headphones are becoming more and more popular among young people,and more and more brands join this field.So, which brand is the best?In my opinion, those brands that have accumulated technology in this field are trustworthy.Below, I have sorted out some good Bluetooth bone conduction headphones brands, and recommend them to you. I hope they can help.
1. Wissonly Hi Runner Bluetooth bone conduction headsets
Wissonly bone conduction vibration unit optimization technology is one of the best technical solutions in the industry, because their team has accumulated in the field of bone conduction for 10 years, which is highly respected by people in the industry in terms of product quality and hearing protection.
Once, there was a saying that the sound quality of Bluetooth bone conduction headsets was average. However, Wissonly Hi Runner refreshes this knowledge. It is excellent in sound quality. It uses a 360-degree bone conduction vibration unit, which can increase the vibration area by 35% compared with traditional Bluetooth bone conduction headsets. Moreover, its loss of bone conduction sound transmission is lower, making the sound more shocking and powerful.
Wissonly Hi Runner has added a number of innovative features to make Bluetooth bone conduction headsets better integrated into many scenes in life. It supports IPX8 diving waterproof, which is very good for me who loves swimming. What’s crazy is that it can still work normally under 20 meters of water! It also has 32GB of memory, so it can play music even if it is not connected to a mobile phone. I basically use it as an MP3 player, and I don’t take my mobile phone for running at night. It uses the Bluetooth 5.0 chip, and outdoor activities can make the connection more stable.
In terms of appearance, Wissonly Hi Runner adopts classic black color, and its simple appearance involves matching whatever clothes you wear in any scene.
2.Philips 7607 Bluetooth bone conduction headsets
Its sounding unit adopt a large-size vibrator of 17mm, which makes it have the effect of high, medium and low triple-frequency balance in sound quality performance. The low-frequency dive is sufficient, the medium and high frequencies are clear and not harsh, but there will be some missing sounds. It is also equipped with an intimate LED night run lamp at the rear end of the body, which can turn on the LED by turning on the key three times in a row. It also has three modes, which is suitable for wearing at night, so that people around it can perceive their own position and ensure their own safety factor to a certain extent.Its IPX6 waterproof rating is not afraid of sweat in daily wear.
3.AfterShokz OPENRUN PRO Bluetooth bone conduction headsets
Openrun PRO also pays great attention to comfort in wearing, and its body is made of skin-friendly silicone which makes it more comfortable, and it can be better enjoyed. In order to reduce the weight, titanium alloy is selected in its connection material, which is not easy to bend and deform, ensuring the service life. The Bluetooth bone conduction headsets are also equipped with Qualcomm QCC3024 chip and Bluetooth 5.0, and have stable connection and no disconnection in daily use.
4.earsopen PEACE Bone Conduction Headset
Earsopen was born in Tokyo, Japan, and is a brand of Bluetooth bone conduction headsets owned by BoCo Co., Ltd. Earsopen PEACE TW-1 is the first Bluetooth headphones with left-right separation among bone conduction products. Because the sounding unit is small and closer to the ear canal, the sound leakage is also very small. The main body of the headphone is T-shaped, and the ear clip is adopted. Comfort is not as high as the first two models, but this way of wearing is really the only one. If you must choose TWS’s one, it’s good.
5. vidonn F3 Bluetooth bone conduction headsets
The weight of this bone conduction headphone is only 29g, and there is comfortable when it is used, whether it is hanging on the neck or hanging on the ear for a long time. The charging port of F3 headphones is a universal standard MICRO-USB interface. The charging port is waterproof with a soft rubber plug, which is not connected to the body, so there is a risk of loss. The disadvantage is that the sound quality is average, and the sound leakage is serious.
Among the several bone conduction headsets recommended above, Wissonly and Aftershokz are the two products with the best overall performance, both in terms of sound quality, safety, comfort and sound leakage reduction.Considering the cost performance ratio, Wissonly will be better and worth recommending.
2023.05.29 03:42 dingyangflange Main design disadvantages of dual phase steel flange
https://preview.redd.it/vz3rfd7hdo2b1.jpg?width=800&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e4c5d332c94d1a051b64870cd0605ce4fe086c22submitted by dingyangflange to u/dingyangflange [link] [comments]
The main design disadvantage of dual phase steel flange is no leakage. This is a deficiency in that design. The connection is dynamic, stainless steel flange, and periodic loads such as thermal expansion fluctuation will cause the movement between flange faces, affect the function of flange, damage the integrity of flange and lead to leakage. Then, let’s learn about the main design shortcomings of dual phase steel flange!
Due to these advantages of dual phase steel flange, sewage treatment pipeline, deep-sea operation, seawater desalination, various acid-base environment and good wear and corrosion performance, it can be used for 4 ~ 5 years more than ordinary stainless steel. For example, the service life of dual phase steel flange for pipeline in seawater will be shortened, and the labor cost is relatively high.
1 . The yield strength is more than one time higher than that of ordinary austenitic stainless steel, and has sufficient plastic toughness required for forming.
2 . It has excellent stress corrosion cracking ability, especially in chloride ion environment.
3 . Dual phase steel is highly corrosive. It can replace high alloy austenitic stainless steel or even etch alloy in some media such as acetic acid and formic acid.
4 . It has good local corrosion properties. Compared with austenitic stainless steel with the same alloy content, the wear corrosion and fatigue corrosion properties are better than austenitic stainless steel
The larger bolts of dual phase steel flange must be consistent with the larger nuts. Dual phase steel flange special steel flange means that larger diameter bolts need to create conditions for fastening nuts. Unexpectedly, the larger the diameter of the bolt, the more curved the flange applied. The method is to increase the wall thickness of the flange part. The whole device of American standard flange needs very large size and weight, which becomes a special problem in offshore environment. Because in this case, weight is always the main issue that must be paid attention to.
Dual phase steel flange is a movable flange, which is generally installed on water supply and drainage accessories. Expansion joints are common. When the manufacturer leaves the factory, there is a flange at both ends of the expansion joint, which is directly connected with the pipeline and equipment under construction through bolts.
Stainless steel and oxidant have passivation effect, forming a tough and dense chromium rich oxide protective film Cr2O3 on the surface, which can effectively prevent the further occurrence of oxidation reaction. Other metal pipe materials, such as galvanized pipe and Japanese standard flange copper pipe, have low passivation ability. This is an important reason why the corrosion resistance of galvanized pipe and copper pipe is far inferior to that of stainless steel pipe.
The two sealing surfaces of the flange bolt squeeze the flange gasket to form a seal, but this will also lead to the destruction of the seal. In order to maintain the seal, the neck flange must maintain a large bolt force. To do this, the bolts must be further enlarged.
2023.05.29 03:40 Smooth-Yellow6308 Not/Dating is killing my self-esteem.
2023.05.29 03:33 DelbertCornstubble Why does this Charlie's Angels collectable exist?
submitted by DelbertCornstubble to collectables [link] [comments]
Why this car?
I found this in a Target toy section. I'm not a connoisseur of collectables but this caught my eye.
This is a 1974 Ford Torino Brougham, a poop-brown fleet sedan designed in the aesthetic nadir of 1973. Perfect as a company car for a nursing home inspector, the real McCoy probably smelled like Virginia Slims and McDonalds fries cooked the Old Way. Not a sports car, not the 'Gran' Torino of Starsky and Hutch with beefy haunches and 5-slot aluminum rims. This is a plainer-than-vanilla vehicle where every extant example should now be rusting in the middle of a forty-year-old crushed cube. Why are we resurrecting it now?
But wait. Was this car driven by Bosley or the Angels? Maybe Farrah's feathered hair flowing through the open window sold the car? Ah-- 'Corinthian Leather' came out with the 1974 Chrysler Imperial LeBaron. Was this a direct competitor sporting Ford's own leather knockoff? Maybe 'Athenian Leather' product placement? So...after I Googled and Binged, even using ChatGPT, I have no idea why this replica was greenlighted.
It turns out this car wasn't driven by any significant or recurring character. It appears in exactly one episode, s1e22, and was a generic police detective's sedan driven by a dirty lieutenant on the vice squad played by Ed Lauter, who got gut-shot at the climax never to be seen again. The car is shown for about a minute of the episode over a few scenes, does not get in any car chase, and does not figure into the plot in any way.
The car's only importance is cradling Kate Jackson's behind in the passenger seat for most of its single minute of airtime in a single episode. That's it. But why actually commission a 1/64 scale replica of this homely car surrounding said behind? And for distribution in the Target toy department next to the Hot Wheels loop-de-loops? So many questions.
What is the minimum number of units a Target retail corporate purchaser normally acquires? What is the sales demographic for this product other than the utterly confused, except for a few eBay sellers who figure that if a thing has no reason to exist, maybe it's worth double? It's not like a coin's mint error or a misprinted postage stamp, it's a whole object! The whole object should not exist in a rational universe.
There’s a site that catalogues movie cars. Here's the car in question, and all cars shown in the whole series. Note that this car isn't even linked to Charlie's Angel's in the above database. So of all the cars in Charlie’s Angels, who greenlighted this replica? Did the company cast lots? Roll dice? Go on a peyote-fueled vision quest? Who is the employee that said, “Alfa Romeo Spider, no… Datsun 280z, no… DANG, I’m gonna model the hell outta that brown 1974 Ford Torino Brougham!”
I can't figure it out. Who was proud of shrinking and emulating this automotive and television non-entity? Whose business acumen approved a product with a niche thinner than the paper in a pocket New Testament?
The back blurb makes it even better:
"A Graduate of the Los Angeles Police Academy, Foxy Jill is a carefree and fun-loving California girl with a great flair for beguiling any male she encounters. She's sporty and athletic, and even goes on to become a champion race car driver."
Oh, it’s for Foxy Jill played by Farrah herself, but not the Angel who actually sat in the car. Foxy Jill beguiles any male she encounters. I thought it was via her swimsuit poster, but no, she cruises for males of the species in her hideous sedan. A sedan she never drove in the show.
Jill is sporty and athletic. The exact opposite of the packaged car. Maybe the car started out as a Ford GT40 and Jill used vampiric powers to suck out all the sportiness and athleticism and we’re left with the shriveled husk of the Ford Torino Brougham.
And finally Foxy Jill goes on to become a champion race car driver. Practicing in this car, that she never drove during that single minute of that single episode.
The whole backstory in the blurb for this product is a complete invention and therefore they could pick any one of the myriad of sport cars featured in the show. But no, we must decorate our shelves with the poop-brown 1974 Ford Torino Brougham driven by a one-episode bad guy of the week who was never seen again. They could at least put Ed Lauter's face on the box.
I mean.. imagine if a company that makes 1/64 replica cars decided to license Batman from DC, and instead of the Batmobile, commissioned a replica of Bruce Wayne's country club golf cart. That's what this is.
Someone please tell me why this collectable exists.
2023.05.29 03:23 Massive_Level_7127 What Are Bone Conduction Headphones and Do Bone Conduction Headphone Leak sound?
In daily life, the sound of teeth colliding can be clearly heard by us, but people around us cannot hear it. This is probably the nearest case of bone conduction technology around us. When you collide your teeth, you may hardly imagine that this sound transmission method will be applied by talented engineers to create the latest popular product-bone conduction earphones.submitted by Massive_Level_7127 to HeyNewGadget [link] [comments]
what are bone conduction headphones?Bone conduction headphone is a type of headphone using bone conduction technology. Its biggest feature is that it uses bone conduction to transmit sound, uses human bones as the medium for transmitting sound, and directly transmits sound to the auditory nerve to form hearing.
This distinctive technical feature has also revolutionized the way it is worn. The wearing method of bone conduction earphones has changed from traditional in-ear wearing to hanging ear wearing. When wearing it, you only need to hang the earphone on the auricle and put the vibration unit close to the temple, and the whole ear is completely open. The change in the way of sound transmission and wearing has made bone conduction headphones another type of earphone, which is a huge upgrade compared to traditional earphones. Many ear doctors also highly recommend them, because they are better and healthier for ears.
In addition to be health for ears,they have many advantages,such as,safe,hygienic,comfortable,unique appearance.Their only shortcoming is that there is a sound leakage problem
Do bone conduction headphone leak sound?Bone conduction headphones will leak sound, but now some mature brands have found a solution to the problem of sound leakage, such as Wissonly and Aftershokz have done a good job in reducing sound leakage.
The sound leakage problem of bone conduction headphones is mainly due to the fact that they convert sound into mechanical vibration through the sound unit, and vibrate the bone to transmit sound. When the headphone is working, the shell of the headphone will be vibrated together by the sound unit, and the shell will vibrate the surrounding air, so sound leakage will occur. In other words, the shell of the bone conduction headphone becomes the "amplified speaker" of the headphone, spreading the sound to the surroundings.
From the principle of the sound leakage phenomenon, we can easily see that all bone conduction headphones have sound leakage problems. Those headphones that claim to have no sound leakage at all are basically fake.
It's just that some bone conduction headphones may have made more efforts to reduce sound leakage. For example, some headphones use anti-phase sound waves to offset the sound waves of sound leakage, or through the integrated design of the body without holes, reduce the air vibration caused by the vibration unit, thereby reducing sound leakage. There are also some brands that optimize the structural design and increase the shock absorption function of the body to reduce sound leakage. It should be said that with the efforts of the entire industry, the sound leakage of bone conduction headphones has also been greatly improved.
Although bone conduction headphones have the problem of sound leakage, it has to be said that they have several outstanding advantages
Safer: Wear them without blocking your ears, which allows you to maintain awareness of your surroundings and make outdoor sports safer;
Healthier: They use bones to transmit sound and do not need to use the eardrum, which avoids damage to the eardrum and can protect hearing well;
More hygienic: bone conduction headphones do not need to be worn in the ear, even if worn for a long time, they can keep the ear canal clean and avoid the growth of bacteria;
More comfortable: They are very light, there is no feeling of weight when wearing them, and the wearing comfort is very high.
These advantages also make them popular among young people.
The following are recommendations for several excellent bone conduction headphones. Some of these earphones have good sound quality and sound leak reduction, and some are low-cost entry-level products.
1. wissonly Hi Runner bone conduction headphones
Reason for recommendation
Wissonly's core team is a team engaged in the research and development of bone conduction products earlier. They have accumulated 10 years' technology in this field. They have adopted the best acoustic laboratory in the Eastern Hemisphere for sound adjustment. Wissonly Hi Runner has good technical solutions to the problems of sound leakage, sound quality and waterproof of pseudo-bone conduction headphones.
Wissonly bone conduction vibrator adopts a unique full-wrapped design, which makes the vibrator work in a closed environment, reducing the impact on the shell, thus reducing the vibration of the shell and finally reducing the sound leakage by 90%.
Wissonly uses a large-size bone conduction vibrator, and the effective vibration area of the vibrator is increased by 35% through structural optimization. At the same time, the sound transmission direction is optimized, the sound loss is reduced, and the sound is more concentrated.
Wissonly Hi Runner adopts integrated molding technology, with no holes in the headphones’ body and it is no splicing, which realizes IPX8 waterproof, and can be used for swimming and bathing. Even in the depth of 20 meters, diving is no problem.
It also has 32G of built-in memory, which can store 5000 songs. You can use it as amp3 player when you don't have a mobile phone.
In a word, Wissonly Hi Runner is a product with powerful functions, stable technology and high cost performance.
2. Philips 7607 bone conduction headphones
Reason for recommendation
They use a 17mm large-scale sound unit that makes their low-frequency sound more delicate, and that makes middle and high frequency sound clearer and not harsh. IP67 waterproof performance allows them to have a waterproof and sweatproof function in daily wear, and to be no problem in the face of sudden rain in a short time. When you wear them at night, LED night running lights make passing vehicles perceive your own location, so the safety factor is higher.
3.AfterShokz OpenSwim bone conduction headphones
Reason for recommendation
The body of the headphone is made of skin-friendly silicone, and its light body is only weighs 36g. It has ergonomic structure of the ear design, no matter running, jumping, wearing glasses without pressure, more intimate details. The waterproof performance of OpenSwim reaches IP68 level, which is suitable for swimmers. A long strip structure design is adopted at the sound generating part, so that the loudspeaker has a larger surface area and higher sound transmission efficiency. With its own 4G memory, it can use as a mp3 player.Its battery life reach 8 hours, no matter about long time using.But this headphones does not support Bluetooth and calling functions.
4.Earsopen PEACE bone conduction headphones
Reason for recommendation:
The Japanese bone conduction headphones adopt the wearing method of ear clipping that is very novel. Although they are ear clipping type, after wearing it for a long time the ear will be somewhat painful. They have IPX7 waterproof performance. Both battery and charger can be used in the charging case, but there is a small problem that the charging case is not waterproof. Their sound quality is still good, and they are excellent in the audio performance of the high, medium and low. And there is a sound leakage problem, but the overall is still good.
5.Nank Runner CC3 bone conduction headphones
Reason for recommendation:
Runner CC 2 bone conduction headphones adopt a combination of soft and hard to reduce sound leakage. The entire headphones adopt a seamless design, even the headset mic is wrapped in silicone. The unique sound leakage cancellation technology can greatly reduce the leakage phenomenon.
It uses magnetic charging, after each use, you only need to put the magnetic tip in the buckle position of the headphones. Compared to traditional headphones, Runner CC2 bone conduction headphones has no holes in the entire body, and it has a certain waterproof effect.
It is generally a good entry-level bone conduction headphone. But the waterproof level is not enough, it is are not suitable rain or water sports.
Among the above five products, Wissonly and Aftershokz are my favorite. Their sound quality, sound leakage reduction and comfort are all very good. Compared with the two brands, Wissonly' product parameters are better, cost-effective, and worth buying
2023.05.29 03:17 emresslnk [28M] Quit my SSRI’s cold turkey 2 weeks ago
2023.05.29 03:12 reverendjesus Episode 8: The Trials of General Gallant